Footnotes and Further Reading

The Wider World - War's End

American Cincinnatus
Footnote # 1

For a brief overview of the English Civil war and the role of the New Model Army, see Barry Coward, The Stuart Age: A History of England, 1603-1714 (New York: Longman, Inc., 1980). An accessible and clearly written account of the New Model Army is Ian Gentles' The New Model Army in England, Ireland and Scotland, 1645-1653 (Cambridge: Blackwell Publishers, 1994.

Footnote # 2

Address and petition of the officers of the Army of the United States, December 1782 in Worthington C, Ford et al, eds., Journals of the Continental Congress, 1774-1789 (Washington: 1904-1937), XXIV, 291-293. Many historians believe that the unrest among Continental Army officers, including the authors of the anonymous letters circulated at Newburgh, was seized upon and actively manipulated by members of Congress, including Robert Morris and Alexander Hamilton, to push for a stronger national government. See, for example, Richard H. Kohn, The Inside History of the Newburgh Conspiracy: America and the Coup d'Etat, William and Mary Qtly, 3d. Series, Vol. 27, No. 2, (April 1970) 188-220. For a useful and accessible on-line narrative of the Newburgh Conspiracy, see

Footnote # 3

Ibid., 295-297.

Footnote # 4

Journal of Thomas Foster, transcription available on-line at

Footnote # 5

The army was encamped at New Windsor, New York, but General Washington’s headquarters were in the nearby town of Newburgh.

Footnote # 6

Genll Washington's Farewell Orders issued to the Armies of the United States of America, 2 November 1783, The Papers of George Washington, University of Virginia. A transcription and image of the original address is on-line at

Footnote # 7

Garry Wills, Cincinnatus: George Washington and the Englightenment (New York: Doubleday, 1984.)

Footnote # 8

George Washington's final draft of this speech is owned by the Maryland State Archives. The orginal and the transcription may be viewed on-line:

Footnote # 9

Wills, Cincinnatus: George Washington and the Englightenment.