ing a pine plain and Deerfield river, entered the meadow in that town, hard pressed by the Indians, and after sustaining several furious attacks arrived at Hatfield, with the loss of thirty-eight men. The most fatal part of the retreat lay across the present town of Greenfield, to the north of the extended swamp. lying north of the old meeting-house. Capt. Turner is supposed to have fallen in Greenfield meadow, near the mouth of the brook, on which now stands Nash's mill, where his body was afterwards found by a scouting party of the English. The Indians followed Holyoke to the village, now called the Bars, at the south end of Deerfield meadow.' "*
THIS town was formerly a part of Deerfield. It was incorporated as a town in 1753. Rev. Edward Billings, the first minister of the first Congregational church in this town, was a native of Sunderland; he settled here in 1754. He was succeeded by Rev. Roger Newton, D.D., in 1761. Rev. Gamaliel S. Olds was settled as colleague in 1813; he resigned in 1816, and became professor of mathematics and natural philosophy in the University of Vermont and Amherst college. His successor was Rev. Sylvester Woodbridge, who was succeeded by Rev. Amariah Chandler in The first pastor of the second church was Rev. Charles Jenkins, who was settled in 1820; his successors have been Rev. William C. Fowler, Rev. Caleb S. Henry, Rev. Thomas Bellows, and Rev. Samuel Washburn. The first minister of the Unitarian Congregational church was the Rev. Winthrop Bailey, who was installed in 1825, and died in 1835. He was succeeded by Rev. John Parkman Jr., in 1837.
The principal part of Greenfield is composed of an extensive plain; on the eastern part of the township runs a succession of eminences, of moderate height, which are a continuation of Deerfield mountain. The soil on and near these eminences is, for some extent, light and sandy; that of the plain is moderately good; and that along Green river, near the western border, is excellent. Greenfield is the shire town of Franklin county. The village is beautifully situated on an elevated plain, rising above the interval on Green river, and built on two intersecting streets. The village consists of 100 well-built dwelling-houses, 4 churches, 2 Congregational, one of which is Unitarian, 1 Episcopal, and 1 Methodist, a court-house, jail, a bank, the "Greenfield Bank," with a capital of $150,000, 2 printing-offices, with quite a number of mercantile stores and mechanic shops. The "Greenfield High School for young Ladies" has a high reputation, and the buildings connected with it are large, extensive, and elegant, and add very much to the fine appearance of the village. The following statement of dis-
*Hoyt's Indian Wars, p. 131.